Manual Testing Exam Questions And Answers

AutomateKode LLC
Total Marks: 80
Time: 2 Hours

1. What is a test plan? What does it include? Write the names of some Manual, Automation and Performance testing Tools in separate lists.
2. What is Test Scenarios, Test Cases and RTM? Can you write Test Cases for Login
functionality in www.AutomateKode.com?
3. What is bug and defect? Assume there is a defect in login. Can you write a sample defect?
4. What is Functional Requirement Document? What is Use Case? Can you write a sample use case for login.
5. What is Primary Key and Foreign Key in Database? What is Sub-Query? Can you write a Sub-Query?
6. What is STLC? What is Priority and Severity in Reporting Defect? What is Performance Testing?
7. What is SDLC? Tell briefly your understanding about Agile Scrum. What is difference between Agile and Waterfall Methodology?
8. What is Unit, Smoke, Integration, System and User Acceptance Testing?

Answers of the above questions:
1. What is a test plan? What does it include?
A document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of intended test activities. It identifies amongst others test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, degree of tester independence, the test environment, the test design techniques and entry and exit criteria to be used, any risks requiring contingency planning. It is a record of the test planning process.
2. What is Test Scenarios, Test Cases and RTM?
Test Scenario: Test scenarios are the high level classification of test requirement grouped depending on the functionality of a module. It is to make sure that end to end functionality of application under test is covered.
A Test Scenarios have one to many relation with Test case, Means A scenario have multiple test case. So while starting testing first prepare test scenarios then create different test cases for each scenario.
Test cases are derived (or written) from test scenario. The scenarios are derived from use cases/Functional Requirement Document.
Test Case: A test case is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine whether a system under test satisfies requirements or works correctly.
A test case has components that describes an input, action or event and an expected response, to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.
Cases vs Test Scenarios
Test Case is ‘How to be tested’ and Test Scenario is ‘What to be tested’

3. What is bug and defect?
• A bug is the result of a coding error
• A defect is a deviation from the requirements
That is: A defect does not necessarily mean there is a bug in the code, it could be a function that was not implemented but defined in the requirements of the software.
4. What is Functional Requirement Document? What is Use Case?
Functional Requirement Document: Functional requirements break down the steps needed to meet the business requirement or requirements. Functional requirements are very detailed and provide information on how business needs and goals will be delivered through a specific project
The functional requirements document (FRD) is a formal statement of an application’s functional requirements. It serves the same purpose as a contract. The developers agree to provide the capabilities specified. The client agrees to find the product satisfactory if it provides the capabilities specified in the FRD.
Use Case: a use case is a list of actions or event steps, typically defining the interactions between a role (known as an actor) and a system, to achieve a goal.
A use case is a methodology used in system analysis to identify, clarify, and organize system requirements. The use case is made up of a set of possible sequences of interactions between systems and users in a particular environment and related to a particular goal.
5. What is Primary Key and Foreign Key in Database? What is Sub-Query?
Primary Key: A primary key is a special relational database table column (or combination of columns) designated to uniquely identify all table records. A primary key’s main features are: It must contain a unique value for each row of data. It cannot contain null values.
Foreign Key: In the context of relational databases, a foreign key is a field (or collection of fields) in one table that uniquely identifies a row of another table. In simpler words, the foreign key is defined in a second table, but it refers to the primary key in the first table.
Sub-Query: A Subquery or Inner query or Nested query is a query within another SQL query and embedded within the WHERE clause. A subquery is used to return data that will be used in the main query as a condition to further restrict the data to be retrieved.
6. What is STLC? What is Priority and Severity in Reporting Defect? ×10
What is Performance Testing?
STLC: Means Software Testing Life Cycle. There are many different activities that make up a software testing project. It takes a sequence of steps that are carried out in order to validate the software. These steps or phases are what make up the Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC).
Here is the software testing life cycle:

1. Requirement Study

2. Test Planning

3. Writing Test Cases

4. Review the Test Cases

5. Executing the Test Cases

6. Bug logging and tracking

7. Close or Reopen bugs
Priority Vs Severity in Defect Reporting:
1) Severity:

It is the extent to which the defect can affect the software. In other words it defines the impact that a given defect has on the system. For example: If an application or web page crashes when a remote link is clicked, in this case clicking the remote link by an user is rare but the impact of application crashing is severe. So the severity is high but priority is low.

Severity can be of following types:

Critical: The defect that results in the termination of the complete system or one or more component of the system and causes extensive corruption of the data. The failed function is unusable and there is no acceptable alternative method to achieve the required results then the severity will be stated as critical.
Major: The defect that results in the termination of the complete system or one or more component of the system and causes extensive corruption of the data. The failed function is unusable but there exists an acceptable alternative method to achieve the required results then the severity will be stated as major.
Moderate: The defect that does not result in the termination, but causes the system to produce incorrect, incomplete or inconsistent results then the severity will be stated as moderate.
Minor: The defect that does not result in the termination and does not damage the usability of the system and the desired results can be easily obtained by working around the defects then the severity is stated as minor.
Cosmetic: The defect that is related to the enhancement of the system where the changes are related to the look and field of the application then the severity is stated as cosmetic.
2) Priority:

Priority defines the order in which we should resolve a defect. Should we fix it now, or can it wait? This priority status is set by the tester to the developer mentioning the time frame to fix the defect. If high priority is mentioned then the developer has to fix it at the earliest. The priority status is set based on the customer requirements. For example: If the company name is misspelled in the home page of the website, then the priority is high and severity is low to fix it.

Priority can be of following types:

Low: The defect is an irritant which should be repaired, but repair can be deferred until after more serious defect have been fixed.
Medium: The defect should be resolved in the normal course of development activities. It can wait until a new build or version is created.
High: The defect must be resolved as soon as possible because the defect is affecting the application or the product severely. The system cannot be used until the repair has been done.
Few very important scenarios related to the severity and priority which are asked during the interview:

High Priority & High Severity: An error which occurs on the basic functionality of the application and will not allow the user to use the system. (Eg. A site maintaining the student details, on saving record if it, doesn’t allow to save the record then this is high priority and high severity bug.)

High Priority & Low Severity: The spelling mistakes that happens on the cover page or heading or title of an application.

High Severity & Low Priority: An error which occurs on the functionality of the application (for which there is no workaround) and will not allow the user to use the system but on click of link which is rarely used by the end user.

Low Priority and Low Severity: Any cosmetic or spelling issues which is within a paragraph or in the report (Not on cover page, heading, title).

Performance Testing: It is a test to check the user’s response time of number of users using multiple scenarios (multiple business process) of the same application at the same time.

7. What is SDLC? Tell briefly your understanding about Agile Scrum. What is difference between Agile and Waterfall Methodology?
The systems (or software) development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.

It includes the following different stages:

1. Requirement phase

2. Design phase

3. Coding (programming)

4. Testing

5. Release (Production)

6. Maintenance (Support)

Agile Scrum: Scrum is a subset of Agile. It is a lightweight process framework for agile development, and the most widely-used one.
A “process framework” is a particular set of practices that must be followed in order for a process to be consistent with the framework. (For example, the Scrum process framework requires the use of development cycles called Sprints)
“Lightweight” means that the overhead of the process is kept as small as possible, to maximize the amount of productive time available for getting useful work done.
A Scrum process is distinguished from other agile processes by specific concepts and practices, divided into the three categories of Roles, Artifacts, and Time Boxes. These and other terms used in Scrum are defined below. Scrum is most often used to manage complex software and product development, using iterative and incremental practices. Scrum significantly increases productivity and reduces time to benefits relative to classic “waterfall” processes. Scrum processes enable organizations to adjust smoothly to rapidly-changing requirements, and produce a product that meets evolving business goals.
There are 3 Elements of Scrum: Artifacts, Timeboxes and Roles.

Artifacts

There are three artifacts in Scrum: The Product Backlog, the Sprint Backlog and the Burndown Chart

The Product Backlog is the bucket for all the requirements. These are the user stories and the high level feature descriptions, all of which have business value priorities. This backlog is constantly changing. The Product Owner (this is one of the roles I will discuss below) owns this backlog, and will gather feedback, suggestions and requirements from stakeholder to add to the backlog. In other methodologies, there are heavy requirement documents, technical specs, etc. In Scrum, the Product Backlog replaces these and the agility is well used with the ability to easily adjust the content of this.

The Sprint Backlog is a subset of the Product Backlog. This is the repository of the highest priorities deemed by the Product Owner. These requirements are broken out into tasks, estimated, and clearly defined by the Scrum Team. Once we start a Sprint, the Sprint backlog does not change.

The Burndown Chart is a chart that indicates how much work is remaining in the Sprint. This chart is hung up in an area that everyone can easily see, including the Scrum Team, the Product Owner and Management. This is updated on a daily basis by the ScrumMaster, after hearing from the team what they have accomplished in the Daily Scrum Meeting.

Roles

There are three roles in Scrum: ScrumMaster, Product Owner and Scrum Team

The ScrumMaster is the coach and the gatekeeper. As a coach they ensuring the framework is being followed, and provide guidance and education where necessary. As gatekeeper, they have the responsibilities to remove impediments and protect the team from outside distractions.

The Product Owner is the subject matter expert. This is the person who knows what the stakeholders want and will define and gather the requirements. They will communicate their vision to the team and set priorities.

The Scrum Team is the group doing the work. The team will be made up of 7 members (plus or minus 2) and may be comprised of engineers, designers, architects, testers, etc.

NOTE: It is very important to note that while the ScrumMaster may be part of the Scrum Team (i.e. as a tester or engineer) the ScrumMaster can NEVER be the Product Owner. These roles must be held by separate people.

Time Boxes

Everything in Scrum is timeboxed. This helps us stay on track and on schedule, because every meeting has a timebox and the length of the work period also has a timebox.

Sprints, the period in which we working on the project, are 2-4 weeks long and should be consistently the same length throughout the project.

Difference between Agile and Waterfall Methodology:
Write what is Waterfall SDLC and its phases
Write what is Scrum SDLC and its phases

8. What is Unit, Smoke, Integration, System and User Acceptance Testing?
Unit Testing: It is a test to check the code whether it is properly working or not as per the requirement. It is done by the developers (Not testers).
Smoke Testing: It is an initial set of test to check whether the major functionality are working or not and also to check the major breakdowns in the application. It is the preliminary test carried out by the SQA tester.
Integration Testing: It is a test to check whether all the modules are combined together or not and working successfully as specified in the requirement document.
System /End to End Testing: Testing which is based on overall requirements specification and it covers all combined parts of a system. It is also a black box type of testing.

User Acceptance Testing(UAT): In this type of testing, the software is handed over to the user in order to find out if the software meets the user expectations and works as it is expected to.
Compatibility testing is testing how well software performs in a particular hardware, software, operating system, or network environment.

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